Cretaceous Archive

Iguanodon

Iguanodon were bulky herbivores that could shift from bipedality to quadrupedality. The only well-supported species, I. bernissartensis, is estimated to have weighed about 3 tonnes (3.5 tons) on
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Giganotosaurus

Giganotosaurus was probably the apex predator in its ecosystem. It shared its environment with titanosaurian sauropod Andesaurus and the rebbachisaurid sauropods Limaysaurus and Nopcsaspondylus. Iguanodont and ornithischian remains
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Tylosaurus

Though many species of Tylosaurus have been named over the years, only a few are now recognized by scientists as taxonomically valid. They are as follows: Tylosaurus proriger
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Mosasaurus

The family Mosasauridae is split into several subfamilies, with Mosasaurus being placed within Mosasaurinae. This subfamily, in turn, is further split into smaller tribes, with Mosasaurus being grouped
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Microraptor

Microraptor had four wings, one on each of its forelegs and hind legs. The long feathers on the legs of Microraptor were true flight feathers as seen in
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Quetzalcoatlus

The nature of flight in Quetzalcoatlus and other giant azhdarchids was poorly understood until serious biomechanical studies were conducted in the 21st century. One early (1984) experiment by
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Pteranodon

Unlike earlier pterosaurs such as Rhamphorhynchus and Pterodactylus, Pteranodon had toothless beaks, similar to those of birds. Pteranodon beaks were made of solid, bony margins that projected from
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Carnotaurus

Carnotaurus is the only known carnivorous bipedal animal with a pair of horns on the frontal bone. The use of these horns is not entirely clear; several interpretations
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Velociraptor

The first digit of the foot, as in other theropods, was a small dewclaw. However, whereas most theropods had feet with three digits contacting the ground, dromaeosaurids like
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Pachycephalosaurus

The pachycephalosaurs Dracorex and Stygimoloch may be specimens of Pachycephalosaurus in which the dome and horns are not well-developed, either because the animal was a juvenile or a
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